Sleep disorders medically known as Somnipathy is a disorder in sleep pattern in a person. It has the ability to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning of a person. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues from teeth grinding (bruxism) to night terrors, inability to fall asleep and frequent waking up at night. It generally causes tiredness, fatigue, irritation and difficult in concentration.

Hypersomnias i.e. Trouble staying awake-excessive daytime sleepiness: majorly caused by insufficient sleep, medications, sleep apnea (central or obstructive), and narcolepsy.
Sleep Apnea: it is a condition in which patients periodically stop breathing while asleep. There are two types of sleep apnea: obstructive and central. Majorly caused by temporary obstruction of the upper airway. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common medical cause of excessive daytime somnolence.
Insomnia (Trouble sleeping): Insomnia is the complaint of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, waking too early and not being able to get back to sleep, or walking feeling unrefreshed and lethargic. It can be caused by jet lag, stress and anxiety, hormones, or digestive problems, or it can be a sign of another disease or condition.
Sleep paralysis: Being unable to talk or move for a brief period when falling asleep or waking up.
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is an inexplicable urge to move your legs, sometimes with a tingling sensation.

Other causes of sleep disturbance include allergies and colds, snoring, frequent urination, etc.

According to Wikipedia, Polysomnography and actigraphy are tests commonly ordered for some sleep disorders. But for proper diagnosis it begins with using sleep diaries and perhaps sleeps studies.
Also, electroencephalogram (EEG), genetic blood testing in the rare case of narcolepsy (unpredictable bouts of falling asleep) may be used for diagnosis of sleep disorder.
Treatment of sleep disturbances includes using sleeping pills, melatonin supplements, breathing device or surgery to address sleep apnea, weight loss, psychotherapy, decreasing stress and anxiety, etc.

Source: Lecture note, Wikipedia

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