Unsaturated fatty acid may reverse aging effect of obesity

Obesity, or a high fat diet, can lead to changes in the immune system similar to those observed with aging. That’s what research published this week in
Experimental Physiology suggests.

The research was carried out by scientists at Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom and the Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition of the Spanish National Research Council (ICTAN-CSIC), the University Complutense of Madrid and the Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre, in Spain.

These findings are useful as they help scientists understand the impact of obesity on our body’s ability to fight infection. They also found that it was possible to reverse some of these effects by supplementing the diet with unsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils, such as olive or fish oils.

Obesity affects one in four adults in the UK and can lead to a number of serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, some types of cancer, and stroke.
The researchers fed mice a high-fat diet, causing them to become obese. Signs of oxidative stress and certain properties of immune cells indicated aging of the immune system. These obese mice were then split into groups and received food supplemented either with 2-hydroxyoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acids for eight weeks.
Author Dr. Fatima Perez de Heredia from Liverpool John Moores University said:
‘This is the first study, at least to our knowledge, to suggest the efficacy of 2-hydroxyoleic acid for reversing obesity-associated immune alterations and improving oxidative stress.’

Culled from physoc.org

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The Role of Iron in the Transport of Blood

Iron gotten richly from Heme sources including Fish, meat and chicken and non-Heme which includes vegetables, grains and cereals is an essential mineral and important part of protein.
Iron is involved in the formation of hemoglobin (about 65% to 68%) of total iron in the body and it is an important factor for the transport of oxygen in the blood. The total quantity of iron in the body is about 4g. It is distributed thus (I) 65% to 68% (ii) 4% as myoglobin in muscle. 1% is combined with the protein transferrin in the blood plasma. About 15 to 30 percent is stored in the liver and reticuloendothelial system for future use.

Absorption from The GIT
After ingestion and churning of the ingested food materials by the stomach, the small intestine absorb iron through the intestinal cells (enterocytes) by pinocytosis and transport it into the blood. The liver plays a major role in the absorption process by secreting moderate amounts of apotransferrin into the bile (usually flow through the bile duct into the duodenum) which is attracted to and binds with receptors in the membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells. Then by pinocytosis, transferrin molecule (a combination of apotransferrin and free iron) is absorbed from the intestine daily with the rate of absorption being regulated by feedback mechanism.

FACT: about 1mg of iron is lost daily in male through feces but it is higher in female about 1.3mg/day due to menstrual loss of blood.

Formation of Hemoglobin
Heme-Iron, Globin-protein. Heme is synthesized in mitochondria and globin is synthesized in ribosomes. When the quantity of iron in plasma falls low, some of the iron in the ferritin storage pools is removed and easily transported in the form of transferrin in the plasma to areas its needed in the body. The transferrin molecule binds strongly with receptors in the cell membranes of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Then it binds with iron and ingested in the erythroblasts by endocytosis. There transferrin delivers iron directly into the mitochondria where is synthesized.
Succinly-COA binds with glycine to form a pyrrole molecule, in turn four pyrroles combine to form protoporphyrin IX, combining with iron to form Heme molecule. Then, each Heme molecule combines with a long polypeptide chain, a globin synthesized by ribosomes, forming a subunit of hemoglobin called a HEMOGLOBIN CHAIN.
Transport of Oxygen
The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen and it does that by combining (loosely) with oxygen in the lungs and releases readily with one molecules of O2, a total of 4 molecules of O2. It is bounded loosely so the combination is only reversible.

Daily requirement of Iron: Men (10mg/day) and 15mg/day in women.

Conclusion
Iron helps in the building of the RBC, part of the hemoglobin and myoglobin muscle.
It also helps in the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

Deficiency symptoms: reduced resistance to infection, productivity, physical fitness, anemia in children and women; paled eyes.
Major sources of iron include: Red meat, fish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits.

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Pain Sensation, Its Benefit and Response

Pain Sensation

Pain is the unpleasant and emotional experience associated with or without actual tissue damage. It could be sharp or slow, acute or chronic. It is expressed in terms of injury for example, pain produced by fire is expressed as burning sensation; pain produced by severe sustained contraction of skeletal muscles is expresed as cramps.

Benefits of Pain Sensation
Within the skin is found in ‘free nerve ending’- a kind of receptor for pain-an important sensory system.
It protective as well as survival benefits are listed below.
1. It gives warning signal about the existence of a problem or threat; it aslo creates the awareness of injury
2. It prevents further damage by causing reflex withdrawal of the body from the source of injury.
3. It forces the person to rest or to minimize the activities thus enabling the rapid healing of the injured part.
4. It urges the person to take required treatment to prevent major damage.

There are three significant reactions besides the distinct sensation of hurt when a lesion is inflicted on the body. They are:
1. Motor reactions: pain sensation leads to withdrawal, a reflex which remove part or all the body from the painful stimulus e.g withdrawal reflex.
2. Emotional reactions: pain has an unpleasant effect with reactions seen as those of anxiety, anguish, crying, depression, etc
3. Autonomic reaction: Rise in blood pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction (reduction in the diameter of blood vessel), tachycardia (increase in the heart rate above 100/minute due to emotional response such as anxiety) and sweating.

Subdivisions of Pain
Pain can be subdivided into major types: Acute and Slow pain
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is felt when a needle is struck into the skin or when the skin is cut with a knife. It is usually not fleet in most parts of the deep tissues of the body. It occurs with about 0.2 second when a pain stimulus is applied. Type A delta fibers which are myelinated conduct pain at a rate of 6-30m/s.
2. Slow pain: This type of pain is associted with tissue destruction. It can also lead to prolonged unbearable suffering and can occur both in the skin and in almost any internal tissue or organ of the body. It occurs after a adecond or more, and increases slowly over a period of many seconds and sometimes, even in minute. Type ‘ fibers which are unmyelinated conduct at a rate of about 1m/s.

The receptors of both the components of pain are the same I.e the free nerve endings but the afferent nerve fibers are different. The first pain sensation are carried by A delta fibers and slow pain is conducted by C type of nerve fibers.

It is important to note-The non-adapting nature of pain.
Pain receptors adapt very little compare to other sensory receptors which include Meissner’s for touch, Merkel’s disk (touch), Pacinnian corpuscle (for pressure), Krause’s end bulb (cold), Raffinis end organ (warmth).

In some conditions, excitation of pain fibers increase as long as the stimulus persists especially for slow aching pain. This increases in sensitivity is termed hyperalgasia. The importance of this is that it keeps us aaware of the tissue damaging stimulus ad long as it is there, prompting us to take action.

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Saliva Secretion and Appetite Appreciation

So what happens when you place a lump of that nutritious meal in your mouth? Your salivary gland that secret saliva serves to prepare your mouth for swallowing.
This post would discuss the major functions of the mouth, salivary gland as well as the appreciation of taste.

THE MOUTH
Apart from clinical practices, the mouth remains the means whereby food is channeled to where they will be absorbed into the body. As earlier pointed, the alimentary canal is a tube of 30feet length. It is regarded s a tube because of the opening at both ends.
The mouth may otherwise be called buccal cavity. It encloses the teeth, tongue and salivary gland. Opening one end to the lips and the other end to the pharynx.
Major functions of the mouth include
#1 Ingestion of food materials, chewing and mix of ingested with saliva
#2 Appreciation of taste
#3 Formation of bolus (for swallowing).
#4 It is also assist in speech, and other social function.

SALIVARY GLANDS
Basically, the mouth region is lined with various duct through which saliva pass through before releasing their content in the mouth.
The salivary glands include:
#1 Parotid glands: found at the side of the face just below and in front of the ear. Its secretion is emptied into the oral cavity by Stensen duct measuring about 35mm-40mm long opening inside the check against the upper second molar tooth.
#2 Submaxillary glands: found in submaxillary triangle, medial to mandible. It empties its content into the oral cavity by Wharton duct which is about 40mm long. The duct opens at the side of frenulum of tongue by small opening in the summit of papilla called carniculla sublingualis.
#3 Sublingual gland: situated in the mucosa at the floor of the mouth. About 5 to 15 small ducts called ducts of Ravines receive this gland content. These ducts open on small papillae beneath the tongue.
Other salivary glands includes (i) Lingual mucus glands found in posterior one third of the tongue at the tip and margins of tongue behind circumvallated papillae
(ii) Lingual serous glands located near circumvallated papillae and filiform papilla
(iii) Buccal glands present between the mucus membrane around the orifice of mouth
(iv) palatal glands found beneath the mucus membrane of the soft palate.

One will notice that in the course of swallowing or splitting out, the saliva could get a lot thicker (mucus) or thinner (serous) or sometimes mixed, lets outline those gland responsible.
Serous gland: made up of serous cells. They secrete thin and watery saliva. Serous glands are parotid glands and lingual serous glands.
Mucus glands: mainly made up of mucus cells. They secrete thick, viscous saliva with high mucin content. Lingual mucus glands and buccal glands and palatal glands are the mucous glands.
Mixed glands: made up of both serous and mucus cells, submandibular, sublingual and labial glands are the mixed glands.

The duct system of the salivary glands is called Racemose type (because of its grapelike appearance). The salivary glands are formed by acini or alveoli with a central cavity that is continuous with the lumen of the duct. They drain into intercalated duct and join together to form intralobular duct. Where few intralobular ducts join, they form interlobular ducts where they unite to form the main glands.

FACTS ABOUT SALIVA
#1. An average of 1000ml to 1500ml of saliva is secreted per day with a slightly acidic pH of 6.35 to 6.85
#2. Mixed saliva contains 99.5% water and 0.5% solids
#3. The parotid gland contributes 25%, submaxillary glands 70% and sublingual gland 5% of total salivary volume.
Substances found in saliva includes mucin, albumin, maltase, lysosome, etc. normally, glucose is not found in the saliva. The presence of glucose is an indication of the presence of a disease.

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Let’s Talk About the Stomach The Stomach The stomach is a hallow organ that is just below the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity.  It is a thick walled organ that lies between the esophagus and the proximal part of the small intestine (the duodenum). The stomach has four parts namely the Cardiac region, fundus, body and the pyloric region. Do you know that an empty stomach is 50ml and can accommodate 1L to 1.5L of solids and liquids. A mucus membrane lines the stomach which contains glands (with chief cells) that secrete gastric juice, up to three quarts of this digestive fluid is produced daily. The gastric glands begin secreting due to the parasympathetic impulses of the vagus nerve even before food enters into it. What causes that rumbling when you perceive that delicious food: The secretion of gastric juices from the gastric glands occurs in three phases: cephalic, gastric and intestinal secretion. The cephalic phase is activated by the smell and taste of food and swallowing while the gastric phase is activate by the chemical effects of food and the distention of the stomach. Also the intestinal phase blocks the effect of the cephalic and gastric phases. Another important feature of the gastric juice is the pepsin which primarily digest proteins, hydrochloric acid and mucus. The hydrochloric acid causes the stomach to maintain pH of about 2 which helps kill bacteria that may be present in the food. On the inside of the stomach there are folds of the skin called the gastric rugae. It becomes distended (extends) especially after a very big meal.
image

Courtesy organsofthebody.com

Parts of the Stomach The stomach is divided into four sections with individual functions. They include: (I) The cardiac region, the point where the esophagus content is emptied into the stomach. (II) Fundus, formed by the layer curvature of the organ. It is elevated above the level of esophageal opening. (III) Body: the largest part of stomach (about 75% to 80%) of the whole stomach. It extends from just below the fundus up to the pyloric region (IV) Pylorus or atrium, the lower section of the organ that facilities emptying the contents into the small intestine. Sphincters of the Stomach There are two sphincters that keep the contents of the stomach intact namely (I) cardiac or esophageal sphincter, dividing the tract above (ii) pyloric sphincter, dividing the stomach from the small intestine. Don't forget to share