Taking Charge of Your 2017

MAKING 2017 A WORTHY YEAR AS A YOUTH & STUDENT.
Source: aocviews.wordpress.com

-Catch your PREY or escape from your HUNTERS.

There is no doubt that many of us regret making some decisions and actions in 2016, which has resulted into different mess while many made a fabulous moment despite the huge economic downturn. Whatever the case maybe, one can still make up and avoid the pitfalls cum 2017. What matters is extracting relevant lessons from them.
My business here quickly is to help create a possible road map on how we can all maximize 2017 and get the best out of it.
I will be practical enough to connect this teaching to myself hereby relating a validated and experienced workout plans.
We are in the age where everyone is seeking attention by initiating one project, initiative or the other. Well, as much as it is nice, some might not be neccesary as it consumes time needed to make more meaningful impact.

To make 2017 a Wow, here are the few things i have personnaly thought of that can help.
kindly note; few of the things i have put together are just key but not limited to them.

12 WAYS TO GET THE BEST IN THE COMING YEAR
1. GOALS
Trying to succeed without goals is like playing soccer without goal posts. You
can neither score nor win. It is an open Invitation to frustration!
When it comes to new year, everyone is always optismistic especially in creating new year approah by making long list of do’s and dont’s. Nice… but deliberate and intentional moves makes them work.
Goal-setting is a powerful #key to maximizing your #opportunities and resources in the #newyear
What do you really want?
What do you really want to achieve?
What difference do you really want to make??
As you set goals for 2017, ensure they’re in line with your strategic vision
(the picture of who you will be in some decades). Yearly plan is not enough….
Set goals for spiritual growth, health, family/relationships, education/career,
and finances. True success is balanced.
Write/type your goals. Through writing, your goals make their entrance into
the physical world. Read them frequently.
If our sole goal is to attain the level others have reached, then we are setting our target too low.
Set long term goals (10 years +), medium term goals (5 years), and short
term goals (1 year). if you don’t you will keep rerouting every year.
The Principles of HOW? WHY? WHEN? WHERE? will accelerate your paper work.
Do not fool yourselves into believing that we are moving forward when we are only keeping up with general trends, while the real opportunities are slipping away.
Dont put your two legs in the water you are not sure of the depth.
Don’t run with people you are not sure of their destination
Do what others do only with the sole aim of making difference.

2. TO-DO LIST
Ask great people, they will tell you how to-do list have helped them structure their lives.
Create on a daily outline of what you want to achieve, it wont allow you to run your life in emptiness.
To do list helps to avoid things like impulse purchase, unwanted or uncalled visits. It updates you of your daily activities.
You must know per time what you are doing and the next one to achieve in clarity.
My To-do list always allow me to properly rate if my day has been well spent or not.

3. DEBT FREE LIFE
Make it a habit NEVER TO BORROW no matter what in 2017.
In 2016, i had a very serious financial mess due to my negligence and error. I paid a total of #560,000 from accumulated debt, it obstructed many of my plans but was still able to make something out of the year though.
Don’t toil with your financial life, it can handicap your progress for a long time.
Don’t be ashamed to say “You don’t have or can’t afford it” when you are incapacitated.
Learn to say NO… game pads, latest iphone are not neccesities when your library seem shalow and lean.
Another scenario is borrowing to finance a project.
I am not against taking Risk, of course i am a frontliner; but whatever you are not ripe for should not be attained by force.
You are not RIPE for whatever you Borrow to Achieve. Grow your financial stream and be contempted with yourself.
If you want to enjoy your 2017. do away with any thing that will drain you financially.
AVOID TRYING TO IMPRESS PEOPLE
A man trying to impress people by posting pictures or activities to the social world is only blocking the possible openings of liberation and advantages.
Of what use is flaunting what you dont have or forming who you are not…
Be Original in all you do, don’t give people impression of what you are not. I am personally tired of chatting with CEO’s on facebook whose physical appearance depicts that of a clueless and confused being, apart from running so called enterprise they do not have knowlege of. To be candid, its of no use.
You do not have to create unachievable or hyped profiles for yourselves all in the name of respect or recognition.
Life does not reward base on SIMILARITIES but on DIFFERENCE.
Be content filled.
Do not share or send your achievements to impress, it becomes impressive when people find out themselves.
The greatest level of IMPRESSION is to shock people with RESULTS unimaginable
Your PROFILE is not only the PROOF of your FILE but the EVIDENCE of your LIFE.
Don’t do what others are doing- be unique.
Re-do what others are not re-doing
If we are thinking the same, then no one is thinking.

5. REDUCE YOUR DEPENDENCE ON GOOGLE
This is the first time i will be sharing this thought about google. It is so bad young people now have two brains.
Google and theirs.
One can not go far with a preformated and stressless life., it diminshes the ability to generate ideas and constructively develop new solutions.
I am sure you will agree with me on these.
If you truly have the urge to develop and stand out, then google should not be your basic source of reliance. Somebody did create that.
I am not suggesting the outright negligence of research or help when neccessary but we should endeavour to be creative enough to share and build original content.
In some of my previous teachings on 100things you will never be taught in school, i made mention of research methodology.
Students today go on internet to copy and paste all in the name of research.
No wonder we can not boast of new discoveries in Africa anymore.
FLATTEN YOUR WANT, CHECK EXCESSES AND DROP ALL UNPRODUCTIVE ACTS.
I once listened to a 9year old boy on NTA whose ambition was to become the president of Nigeria someday with numerous manifestoes on ground already. One of them include Buying cars for all members of his family and building two gigantic structures for his parents. hmnn…
Well, many of us have wants that are outrageous, unachievable and unattainable.
As we grow to 2017, slimfit your want, many of them are of no use anyway.
Excessess: Sleep less, Eat less- it weighs you down when you are suppose to study(some people might want to crucify me for this one), chat less, talk less… you all know them.
Be smart enough to know who is wasting your time and those helping you maximize them.
The truth be told, you can not keep time-killers and make a meaningful life.
They surround us on daily basis debating irrelevant and unproductive discussions.
It’s time to say NO and be KNOWN.

7. CONNECT WITH PEOPLE THAT MATTERS
People have always being the people God will send to help people.
People have always being the people Devil will send to destroy people.
It’s equally profitable to note that people of importance always appear simple and mild, they hardly share fascinating thoughts you can like or share.
Joseph Arithmatea who helped jesus carry his cross was never a celebrity nor a public figure. Infact his name was never mentioned again after that scene, but he achieved a very significant task.
Be wise enough to identify those that have been positioned to help you in the coming year.
May God open our eyes.
Find time to identify SILENTLY VOICED and Content Filled Individuals on your list.
Prune your contact from time to time and delete as appropriate.
There are some useless (so called) people on our list who knows useful people that can connect us to the place we desire in life.
MAXIMIZE your contact

BE WEARY OF ACADEMIC DISTRACTIONS
Our campuses today is filled with so many irrational things that looks so fascinating to us.
Anything that fascinates can assasinate you.
Phones, laptops, Politics, Friends, Party, etc
They are as dangerous as Danger itself.

9. KNOW WHAT YOU WANT
There are different colours in the market.
BLUE: Celestial Blue, Imperial Blue, Palatinate Blue, Presidential Blue, Queen Blue, NYPD Blue, Police Strobe, Air Force Blue, Navy Blue, Cadet Blue, Royal Blue, Skye blue etc
If you don’t know what you want, you will fall for the less.

10. PROCRASTINATION
I will, i might are dangerous words to do away with while planning your new year.

11. RUN PARTNERSHIPS
You can achieve more when you run with like minds.
You can run fast alone, but you can run Far in the company of partners
Many of us who kickstart projects are looking for self glorification, loves titles like CEO, MD, COO, etc. If it has nit been working for you, make a you turn and partner with people.

12. MAKE GOD YOUR PRIORITY
Guys… if by now God is an option in your life, you are a fool.
It’s time to all realize that God only has the power to increase, inspire, motivate, help and bring all plans to fulfilment.
Make it a plan to draw closer to him more than before and i am sure it will be a worthwhile decision.
It is my wish and prayer that 2017 will bringforth multiple fruit, end fruitless journey and accelerate progress.
For me : it has been tagged a year of NEXT level and GRANDSTYLE..
All these thoughts can be viewed and downloaded on my blog. http://www.aocviews.wordpress.com
I celebrate you all.

Ademola Ogunlade is founder STRIDES Magazine and is passionate about the youths.

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Air Force Commissions Cancer Screening Centre In Kaduna.

Source: Channels Television

The project, which is an initiative of the Chief of Air Staff, Air Marshal Sadique Abubakar is part of the efforts to pay significant attention to the general well-being of Nigerian Air Force personnel, their relatives and members of the host communities.

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Photo credit: Channels Tv

Speaking during the commissioning of the centre located inside the NAF Hospital in Mando, Kaduna, the Air Force boss, represented by the Air Officer Commanding Training Command, Air Vice Marshal Nurudeen Balogun, said that the aim is to provide personnel of the Nigerian Air Force, their families and members of the host communities the opportunity to carry out routine medical checks in order to detect cancers early enough and commence treatment.

It was built to fill the gap, complement government healthcare delivery programmes and help in reducing the devastating effect of diseases in the country.
Records have shown that cancer, especially cervical cancer, has led to early and untimely death of women in recent time.

This, the Air Force acknowledged, is being occasioned by inadequate screening centre for early detection and treatment.
While expressing worry over the prevalent rate of cancer, especially among women, Air Vice Marshal Nurudeen Balogun urged officers and men of the service and their families to take advantage of the facilities provided in order to remain cancer free.

The Director of Medical Services, Nigerian Air Force Headquarters, Air Vice Marshal Saleh Shinkafi, said that the centre has been equipped with modern facilities for the screening of all types of cancer for early detection and treatment.

He also highlighted the importance of the cancer registry to provide a reliable database for research and planning for public health intervention programmes.
According to statistics, over half a million people globally die from breast cancer annually while over six million people are living with the disease worldwide.

In Nigeria, about 71,600 deaths are recorded annually from cervical cancer with many yet to be detected.

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Lassa fever reemerges in Nigeria

by PAUL ADEPOJU on DECEMBER 20, 2016
Source: HealthNewsNg

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Panic as Lassa fever reemerges in Nigeria

Lassa fever has reemerged in Nigeria with the official announcement by the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Abeokuta today (Tuesday) of the death of a nursing staff to Lassa fever, the hospital also announced that two others have been placed observation.

According to the hospital management, the nurse died last week after battling with the sickness, which is also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF). The hospital’s Head of Information, Segun Orisajo confirmed the development to
Daily Trust , but assured that the management has put up necessary measures to curtail the situation.

He said the name of the victim is Adebusuyi Bolanle, she died from complications which arose from contacting the fever.
“Yes, I can confirmed that we lost a staff Nurse to the Lassa fever and two others are undergoing observation as I speak with you. The immediate families of the deceased have been contacted and they were here today (Tuesday) for observation.

“The state commissioner for health, Dr. Babatunde Ipaye has been here too to carry out the necessary steps to stop the spread. The management can assure staff and patients that everything is under checks,” Orisajo said.

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2017 My year

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#Health_Flashback_2016

Lassa Fever Outbreak: 41 Nigerians killed in 10 states – Minister

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The federal government says Lassa fever has claimed 41 lives from 93 reported cases in 10 states of the country.
The federal government on Friday put the death toll at 40 out of 86 reported cases of Lassa fever outbreak in same 10 states.
The number of the suspected cases also rose from 86 last week to  93.

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The Minister of Health, Isaac Adewole, confirmed this in Abuja on Tuesday at a joint ministerial news conference on the update of the outbreak of the disease.
However, Mr. Adewole said there were no new confirmed cases or deaths in the last 48 hours.

He did not disclose the states from where another life was lost.
“In the last 48 hours, the government raised a four-man expert committee, chaired by Professor Michael Asuzu, to visit Kano, Niger and Bauchi, the three most endemic states.
“The committee will embark on a fact finding mission, assess the current situation, document response experiences, identify gaps and proffer recommendations on how to prevent future occurrences,” Mr. Adewole, a professor, said.
The minister assured the public the task of the committee was not to apportion blame but rather to document lessons learnt for better planning of an affective responsive.
According to Mr. Adewole, part of the long term response is to establish an inter-ministerial committee to deliver a final blow on Lassa fever and other related diseases.
The committee comprises the ministers of Education, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Environment, Information and Culture as well as Health.

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Mr. Adewole advised communities to improve on their hygiene, including food hygiene and food protection practices.
He also urged the public to avoid contact with rodents as well as food contaminated with rat’s secretions and excretions.
“Avoid drying food in the open and along roadsides. It is also important to cover all foods to prevent rodent contamination,” he said.
The minister said affected states had been advised to intensify awareness creation on the signs and symptoms of the disease.
According to him, the affected states are Bauchi, Nasarawa, Niger, Taraba, Kano, Rivers, Edo, Plateau, Gombe and Oyo.
“The public is hereby assured that government and other stakeholders are working tirelessly to address the outbreak and bring it to timely end,” said the minister.
He said the ministry had ordered for the immediate release of adequate quantities of “ribavirin”, the specific antiviral drug for Lassa fever, to the affected states for prompt treatment of cases.
Mr. Adewole said Nigeria had the capability to diagnose Lassa fever, adding that “all the cases reported so far were confirmed by our laboratories”.
The first case of the current outbreak was reported from Bauchi in November 2015.

Source: Nigeria Health Watch

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Non-communicable Diseases Take over Africa

Non-Communicable Disease arm of World Health Organization report that over 1.7 million people die in Africa due to preventable and manageable diseases (NCD), the highest prevalence in the world.

Non-Communicable Disease also known as chronic diseases are slow progressive and long duration diseases not passed from person to person, they include cardiovascular diseases (like heart attack and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and Diabetes. Children, adults and the elderly are vulnerable to the risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, exposure to tobacco smoke or effects of the harmful use of alcohol) contributing to NCD chiefly low and middle income earners.

According to report, all age group and all regions are affected by NCDs but about 82% occurred in low and middle income countries. Forces including ageing, rapid unplanned urbanization and the globalization of unhealthy lifestyles help facilitate the advance of these diseases leading to death e.g. globalization of unhealthy lifestyles like unhealthy diets might show up in individuals as raised blood pressure, increased blood glucose, elevated blood lipids and obesity referred to as ‘intermediate risk factors’ leading to cardiovascular diseases, a NCDs.

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Risk factors-modifiable behavioural risk factors
Behaviours such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and the harmful use of alcohol are the risk factors of NCDs. Below are statistics as provided on WHO website.
*Tobacco accounts for around 6 million death every year (including from the effects if exposure to second hand smoke) and is projected to increase to 8 million by 2030
*About 3.2 million deaths annually can be attributed to insufficient physical activity.
*More than half of the 3.3 million annual deaths from harmful drinking are from NCDs
*In 3020, 1.7 million annual deaths from cardiovascular cases have been attributed to excess salt/sodium intake.

The above risk factors leads to metabolic/physiological changes hiking the risk of NCDs and eventually death. These metabolic changes includes raised blood pressure, overweight/obesity, hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose levels) and hyperlipidaemia (high levels of fat in the blood)

Prevention and control of NCDs
*A comprehensive approach towards all sectors including health, finance, foreign affairs, education, agriculture, planning and others to work together to reduce the risks associated with NCDs and also the promotion in the interventions to both prevent and control them.
*Lessening the risk factors associated with these diseases is an important way to reduce NCDs
*High impact essential NCD interventions delivered through a primary health centre approach to strengthen early detection and timely treatment. Creation of healthy public policies that promote NCD prevention and control and reorienting health systems to address the needs of people with such disease.

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Source: WHO report on NCDs

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Measuring a moving target: Symposium on Hormone Sensing

What do the meat industry have in common? The answer is hormones. Secreted into the blood by specialized organs and tissues, hormones communicate a bewildering array of signals to a myriad of target sites.
Two weeks ago, The Physiological Society brought together experts in physiology, endocrinology, chemistry, physics and engineering, to discuss how to produce a new generation of tools and methods for detecting hormones inside our bodies
“The biggest hurdle facing basic and clinical endocrinologists is how we can measure hormones inside the body,” said one of the symposium organizers, Timothy Wells, Senior Lecturer in Neuroscience at Cardiff University.
Addressed by UK and international experts in hormone-receptor interactions, light-based sensing and nanocarbon-based sensing, the Society’s symposium explored how these molecular interactions could be exploited to quantify the dynamic changes in circulating hormone levels.
Cutting edge work featured
One of the potential approaches was presented by Frank Vollmer and his colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light. He and his team are attempting to reach the ultimate limit of detection, by sensing single molecule interactions and the resultant changes in three-dimensional shape. Their new technique, which was published this week in Nature Photonics , may enable the detection of individual hormone molecules.
Thus, the day of talks highlighted just how far we’ve come since Ernest Starling coined the term hormone in 1905.

The event, titled “Novel approaches to Hormone Sensing, The Inaugural Bayliss-Starling Symposium,” was part of the society’s H3 symposia. The next symposium will be held on 15 November about one of the biggest discoveries in biotech, CRISPR. Visit our website for more info: http://www.physoc.org/crispr/

Source: physoc.org

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The Physiology of Stress

“Group 6 it’s your turn” as Dr. Davies took his seat at the beginning of his lectures. Hospital practice-course title, has been that platform for all students offering it to display their skills in research and lecture delivery. “We’ll be discussing cortisol and it effect on stress” the group leader said by way of introduction. Sit back, take your time as I bring you bit by bit information on the physiology of stress, causes and management.

Dr. Davies Kofrey defined stress as the condition capable of unbalancing homeostasis in the body. Stress is an inevitable part of life ranging from physical stress which includes change in weather conditions, increase in body temperature; emotional stress: anger, fear; to bacteria invasion in the body causing infection and sickness.
Stress can be both beneficial-physiological or destructive. A good example physiological stress is muscular exercise with its attendant imbalance in the body for example mild hypoxia with might result in the production of ketone in the body. And of course, worry and anxiety could be classified as negative stress.

Stress of any kind whether it be physical or neurologic can cause an immediate and marked increase in ACTH secretion by the anterior pituitary followed within minutes by adrenocorticotropic secretion of cortisol. Cortisol is an emergency-stress response hormone secreted at any incidence of stress (listed below). It mobilizes labile proteins and make amino acids available to needy cells in the synthesize of essential substance need for life. Various stressor of the body includes: Infections, intense mild/heat, surgery, almost any debilitating disease including schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis and poliomyelitis amongst others.

Short and Long Term Effects of Stress
During periods of increased stress, the immune cells which produces antibodies are bathed (immersed) in molecules which essentially tell them to stop fighting. These molecules which are cortisol molecules suppresses the immune system and inflammatory pathways rendering the body more susceptible to disease (Onyinyechi, 2016). Other significant effects of stress include prolonged healing time as a result of increased blood clotting time, reduction in ability to cope with vaccinations and heightened vulnerability to viral infection.
Onn a long time scale, effects of stress are seen in impaired cognition-trouble in remembering and learning; decreased thyroid function amongst others.

Managing stress: Simple both effective way of combating stress includes Exercise, relaxation, deep breathing, consulting a specialist say a psychologist, etc.

Remember, stress is a normal part of life but at times it may be too much and feels out of control.

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BLACK SATURDAY IN A’IBOM: A GLANCE AT ITS EMERGENCY RESPONSE.

Last week Saturday (10th December, 2016) was a day of state-wide mourning as a church building gave way during service killing over 200 worshippers as mentioned by sources. What would have been a political unrest was aviated by a said P.A who took the place of death of the number one person in the state-the Governor, Mr. Udom Emmanuel.

They had gathered like every other service day singing and praising God from a joyful heart before the unexpected happened. According to a survivor of the incident, as reported by Punch Newspaper Ng, stated that the building collapsed just immediately after a lead singer’s performance at the ordination of the presiding pastor of Reigner Bible Church, Bishop Elect Akan Weeks.
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My major concern for writing is the emergency response by the medical team and other relevant agencies in the state. Report have it that the Governor ordered cranes to move into the site to remove the collapsed building as police took charge of the scene endeavoring the safety and rescue of injured worshippers.

A journalist who spoke on radio this morning stated that the emergency response from medical team was quite poor calling it a wake-up call on the part of the government and individuals for preparedness and proper response. He further, spoke on the donation of blood (for injured persons) as not forth-coming due to poor awareness/publicity.

Akwa-Ibom state has a population of 5 million has over 50 primary health clinics is yet to attain the height of promptness in emergency situation (in my opinion). I join hundreds of health workers across the state to ask the government for more equipment, training and capacity development of health personnel. Furthermore, I call on individuals to be ready, when beckon upon for, blood donation leaving behind wrong perception to doing what’s right and needful.

I must at this point appreciate the state ministry of Health and the State government of Akwa-Ibom on their effort in improving the health status of her people especially at the Hands-Up for HIV campaign.

Images courtesy Punch Newspaper Ng

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The Role of Iron in the Transport of Blood

Iron gotten richly from Heme sources including Fish, meat and chicken and non-Heme which includes vegetables, grains and cereals is an essential mineral and important part of protein.
Iron is involved in the formation of hemoglobin (about 65% to 68%) of total iron in the body and it is an important factor for the transport of oxygen in the blood. The total quantity of iron in the body is about 4g. It is distributed thus (I) 65% to 68% (ii) 4% as myoglobin in muscle. 1% is combined with the protein transferrin in the blood plasma. About 15 to 30 percent is stored in the liver and reticuloendothelial system for future use.

Absorption from The GIT
After ingestion and churning of the ingested food materials by the stomach, the small intestine absorb iron through the intestinal cells (enterocytes) by pinocytosis and transport it into the blood. The liver plays a major role in the absorption process by secreting moderate amounts of apotransferrin into the bile (usually flow through the bile duct into the duodenum) which is attracted to and binds with receptors in the membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells. Then by pinocytosis, transferrin molecule (a combination of apotransferrin and free iron) is absorbed from the intestine daily with the rate of absorption being regulated by feedback mechanism.

FACT: about 1mg of iron is lost daily in male through feces but it is higher in female about 1.3mg/day due to menstrual loss of blood.

Formation of Hemoglobin
Heme-Iron, Globin-protein. Heme is synthesized in mitochondria and globin is synthesized in ribosomes. When the quantity of iron in plasma falls low, some of the iron in the ferritin storage pools is removed and easily transported in the form of transferrin in the plasma to areas its needed in the body. The transferrin molecule binds strongly with receptors in the cell membranes of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Then it binds with iron and ingested in the erythroblasts by endocytosis. There transferrin delivers iron directly into the mitochondria where is synthesized.
Succinly-COA binds with glycine to form a pyrrole molecule, in turn four pyrroles combine to form protoporphyrin IX, combining with iron to form Heme molecule. Then, each Heme molecule combines with a long polypeptide chain, a globin synthesized by ribosomes, forming a subunit of hemoglobin called a HEMOGLOBIN CHAIN.
Transport of Oxygen
The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen and it does that by combining (loosely) with oxygen in the lungs and releases readily with one molecules of O2, a total of 4 molecules of O2. It is bounded loosely so the combination is only reversible.

Daily requirement of Iron: Men (10mg/day) and 15mg/day in women.

Conclusion
Iron helps in the building of the RBC, part of the hemoglobin and myoglobin muscle.
It also helps in the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

Deficiency symptoms: reduced resistance to infection, productivity, physical fitness, anemia in children and women; paled eyes.
Major sources of iron include: Red meat, fish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits.

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Pain Sensation, Its Benefit and Response

Pain Sensation

Pain is the unpleasant and emotional experience associated with or without actual tissue damage. It could be sharp or slow, acute or chronic. It is expressed in terms of injury for example, pain produced by fire is expressed as burning sensation; pain produced by severe sustained contraction of skeletal muscles is expresed as cramps.

Benefits of Pain Sensation
Within the skin is found in ‘free nerve ending’- a kind of receptor for pain-an important sensory system.
It protective as well as survival benefits are listed below.
1. It gives warning signal about the existence of a problem or threat; it aslo creates the awareness of injury
2. It prevents further damage by causing reflex withdrawal of the body from the source of injury.
3. It forces the person to rest or to minimize the activities thus enabling the rapid healing of the injured part.
4. It urges the person to take required treatment to prevent major damage.

There are three significant reactions besides the distinct sensation of hurt when a lesion is inflicted on the body. They are:
1. Motor reactions: pain sensation leads to withdrawal, a reflex which remove part or all the body from the painful stimulus e.g withdrawal reflex.
2. Emotional reactions: pain has an unpleasant effect with reactions seen as those of anxiety, anguish, crying, depression, etc
3. Autonomic reaction: Rise in blood pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction (reduction in the diameter of blood vessel), tachycardia (increase in the heart rate above 100/minute due to emotional response such as anxiety) and sweating.

Subdivisions of Pain
Pain can be subdivided into major types: Acute and Slow pain
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is felt when a needle is struck into the skin or when the skin is cut with a knife. It is usually not fleet in most parts of the deep tissues of the body. It occurs with about 0.2 second when a pain stimulus is applied. Type A delta fibers which are myelinated conduct pain at a rate of 6-30m/s.
2. Slow pain: This type of pain is associted with tissue destruction. It can also lead to prolonged unbearable suffering and can occur both in the skin and in almost any internal tissue or organ of the body. It occurs after a adecond or more, and increases slowly over a period of many seconds and sometimes, even in minute. Type ‘ fibers which are unmyelinated conduct at a rate of about 1m/s.

The receptors of both the components of pain are the same I.e the free nerve endings but the afferent nerve fibers are different. The first pain sensation are carried by A delta fibers and slow pain is conducted by C type of nerve fibers.

It is important to note-The non-adapting nature of pain.
Pain receptors adapt very little compare to other sensory receptors which include Meissner’s for touch, Merkel’s disk (touch), Pacinnian corpuscle (for pressure), Krause’s end bulb (cold), Raffinis end organ (warmth).

In some conditions, excitation of pain fibers increase as long as the stimulus persists especially for slow aching pain. This increases in sensitivity is termed hyperalgasia. The importance of this is that it keeps us aaware of the tissue damaging stimulus ad long as it is there, prompting us to take action.

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